March 11, 2019 Written by

Con il termine agrumo si intendono le piante coltivate appartenenti al genere Citrus della sottofamiglia Aurantioideae (famiglia delle Rutaceae) e i loro frutti.

La sottofamiglia comprende specie definite e stabili ma anche molte varietà e mutazioni naturali, nell'infiorescenza come pure nei frutti, per cui si trovano vari tipi di agrumi in varie parti del mondo. Oltre a ciò sono stati sviluppati numerosissimi ibridi, alcuni dei quali con caratteristiche non durevoli, per cui si trovano sul mercato solo per tempi relativamente brevi.

L'origine di tutti i Citrus è l'India e l'Estremo Oriente. Oggi gli agrumi crescono spontaneamente anche in Indonesia, Malaysia, Nuova Guinea e nelle Filippine. Le varie specie hanno raggiunto l'Europa in tempi diversi. Sembra che il primo sia stato il cedro, ben noto tra gli antichi Romani come pomo di Persia. È documentato che sempre costoro conoscevano già nel I secolo anche il limone e l'arancio amaro, ma la loro coltivazione è stata introdotta nel Mar Mediterraneo solo nel X secolo dai Saraceni. La coltivazione dell'arancio dolce invece è stata introdotta dai Portoghesi nel XVI secolo, mentre risale addirittura al XIX secolo l'acquisizione del mandarino. Gli agrumi sono largamente coltivati nella fascia subtropicale di tutto il mondo. Oltre che in Asia e nel Mediterraneo, coltivazioni importanti sono presenti in Oceania, Nuova Zelanda, Australia, Azzorre, Sudafrica, Sudamerica e USA. produttore maggiore è gli USA segue il Mediterraneo (Europa e Africa), Asia e Sudamerica.

L'Italia (soprattutto la Sicilia) occupa un posto di rilievo nella produzione mondiale degli agrumi, con una quota attorno al 5% (paragonabile alla produzione giapponese e spagnola, ma molto inferiore a quella del Brasile e degli USA che producono rispettivamente il 25% e 20%).

In Italia la produzione di agrumi (arance, limoni, mandarini, clementina, bergamotto, chinotto) si concentra nelle regioni meridionali, con la Sicilia in prima fila (circa i due terzi della produzione nazionale), seguita dalla Calabria (circa un quarto) e a distanza da Campania, Puglia, Basilicata, Sardegna e altre regioni.

È molto apprezzata la produzione di agrumi nel Gargano che vanta specie autoctone e DOP sia di limone sia di arancia nei territori di San Menaio e di Rodi Garganico, nella cosiddetta oasi agrumaria.

Fonte: Wikipedia

Read 143 times Last modified on Monday, 11 March 2019 10:08
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